Energy Charter Treaty

The Energy Charter Treaty (ECT) is a plurilateral investment agreement between 53 European and Central Asian countries. It was signed in 1994 and entered into force in April 1998.

About 30 countries around the world are at different stages of joining the ECT. Burundi, Eswatini (formerly Swaziland) and Mauritania are first in line, followed by Pakistan and Uganda.

The original objective of the ECT was to overcome the political and economic divisions between Eastern and Western Europe after the demise of the Soviet Union, as well as to strengthen Europe’s energy security. European countries wanted to secure the access to fossil fuel resources of the former Soviet countries by protecting foreign energy investments in these countries.

The ECT provides for an Investor State Dispute Settlement (ISDS) mechanism to resolve disputes between an investor and a member state. To this day, it is the world’s most widely used legal instrument for initiating ISDS arbitrations. It has been invoked by investors in 124 cases.

Critics argue that as with most other investment agreements, it places investors’ economic rights and interests over the social, ecological and economic interests of host states and their societies. The ECT imposes obligations on the host state but not on foreign investors. The ECT has also been condemned by environmental activists for protecting the fossil fuel industry and undermining serious climate action.

Spain has been subject to 45 arbitration disputes under the ECT after it implemented a series of energy reforms affecting the renewables sector, including a reduction in subsidies for producers. While some cases are still pending, Spain has already been ordered to pay over €800 million.

You can find out more about the Energy Charter Treaty on the ECT’s dirty secrets website.

Key cases include:

Vattenfall (Sweden) vs. Germany: In 2007 the Swedish energy corporation was granted a provisional permit to build a coal-fired power plant near the city of Hamburg. In an effort to protect the Elbe river from the waste waters dumped from the plant, environmental restrictions were added before the final approval of its construction. The investor initiated a dispute, arguing it would make the project unviable. The case was ultimately settled in 2011, with the city of Hamburg agreeing to the lowering of environmental standards.

Yukos (Isle of Man) vs. Russia: Yukos was a Russian oil and gas company. It was acquired from the Russian government during the controversial “loans for shares” auctions of the mid 1990s, whereby some of the largest state industrial assets were leased (in effect privatized) through auctions for money lent by commercial banks to the government. The auctions were rigged and lacked competition, and effectively became a form of selling for a very low price. In 2003, the Yukos CEO was arrested on charges of fraud and tax evasion and the following year Yukos’ assets were frozen or confiscated. In 2007 Yukos’ former shareholders filed a claim for over US$100 billion, seeking compensation for their expropriation. The dispute resulted in 2014 in the arbitrators awarding the majority shareholders over US$50 billion in damages. The investors have been trying to enforce the award in several countries since then.

NextEra (Netherland) vs. Spain: The Dutch investor filed for arbitration in May 2014, after Spain changed the regulatory framework applicable to its investment, namely the construction of two solar power plants. NextEra claimed that Spain abolished the long-term premium and tariff system, negatively affecting the profitability of the project. However, Spain alleged that NextEra should have been aware that changes could be made to the regulatory regime. In May 2019, the investor was awarded around €290 million. Spain filed for annulment in October 2019.

Photo: Marc Maes / Twitter

Last update: April 2020

SeeNews | 16-Jan-2017
Croatia’s government said it will appeal the ruling of the Arbitral Tribunal which dismissed Croatia’s claims against Hungary’s MOL in a case concerning Croatian oil and gas company INA
Kluwer Arbitration Blog | 11-Jan-2017
Central to the general public’s opposition to ISDS is the concept of legitimate expectations.
TASS | 11-Jan-2017
Yukos former shareholders are trying to dispute the decision of the Hague District Court.
Kluwer Arbitration Blog | 9-Jan-2017
In the landscape of international investment arbitration the allegations of corruption have become more and more common.
Kluwer Arbitration Blog | 30-Dec-2016
This dispute and final judgment provide some valuable lessons for the arbitral tribunal in the ECT Vattenfall dispute.
DW | 8-Dec-2016
Germany’s highest court has ruled in favor of three power companies in a dispute over a government decision to phase out nuclear energy. Vattenfall is also suing at the International Center for Settlement of Investment Disputes (ICSID).
RAPSI | 24-Nov-2016
The Court of Appeal in Paris ruled to lift a freeze on assets of Russian Satellite Communications Company and RIA Novosti news agency.
Kluwer Arbitration Blog | 30-Sep-2016
Recent developments indicate there may be increasing interest in the creation of alternative forms of dispute resolution for investor-State disputes. One potential alternative is mediation.
ICSID | 30-Sep-2016
The hearing on jurisdiction, merits and quantum in Vattenfall AB and others v. Federal Republic of Germany is scheduled to take place before a three-member arbitral tribunal from Monday, October 10, 2016 through Friday, October 21, 2016.
Kluwer Arbitration Blog | 9-Sep-2016
The Ukrainian “saga” on the enforcement of the SCC emergency arbitrator’s award continues – the case is pending the second round of cassation review.

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