Africa

African states are party to over a thousand investment agreements, the vast majority of which have been signed with non-African countries.

In 2006, Members of the Southern African Development Community (SADC) (Botswana, Lesotho, Mozambique, Namibia, South Africa and Swaziland) signed the SADC Finance and Investment Protocol that also includes the ISDS mechanism. Only two claims have been registered under these terms, both against Lesotho (but the governments in the region do not typically disclose such information). In 2016 amendments to the protocol were adopted. They eliminated ISDS provisions (only state-to-state arbitration remained) and narrowed the scope of investors’ rights.

In South Africa, shortly after settling a dispute with foreign mining companies over its new post-apartheid mining rules (Piero Foresti & Others case), the government began to withdraw from bilateral investment treaties (BIT) that include ISDS, arguing they belonged to a bygone era. It claimed BITs focus on the interests of investors from developed countries and do not address concerns of developing countries.

The South African government decided to develop a new model BIT and strengthen its domestic legislation in regard to the protection offered to foreign investors, such as compatibility of BIT-type protection with South African law. South Africa also sought to incorporate legitimate exceptions to investor protection where warranted by public interest considerations.

Provisions of South Africa’s new model BIT have been incorporated into SADC’s. This model sets out provisions that mitigate the risks of earlier treaties and leaves open the option for state-to-state dispute settlement in addition to investor-state dispute settlement procedures.

In 2014, voices from the Namibian government cast doubts on the correlation between foreign direct investment and investment treaties including ISDS. They argued that ISDS represented a risk for developing countries, due to important legal fees and awards which can pose a significant budgetary threat. Further, statistics show most claimants come from developed countries.

About 11% of all arbitration disputes have involved African states.

In 2013, an arbitration court ordered Libya to pay US$935 million in a dispute over a land-leasing contract for a tourism project, making it one of the largest known awards to date.

Egypt has been the fifth most targeted state worldwide with 34 registered ISDS cases against it. Tanzania has been the most targeted country in sub-Sahara Africa with six disputes, all of which were initiated by European investors.

Photo: Hansueli Krapf / CC BY-SA 3.0

(April 2020)

HIC-HLRN | 1-Apr-2015
In many cases, international investment agreements have the purpose and/or effect of hijacking the international human rights system.
The Southern Times | 16-Mar-2015
With increased levels of investment into Africa, the number of legal disputes in the continent is also on the rise.
The Ethiopia Observatory (TEO) | 21-Jan-2015
If TTIP is bad, the UK-Ethiopia BIT is worse, says Lorenzo Cotula of IIED
PressAfrik | 1-Dec-2014
Il est légitime de se demander si le Sénégal ne protège pas trop les investisseurs étrangers à travers les Accords Bilatéraux d’Investissement. Analyse.
ECDPM | 4-Aug-2014
The US Trade Representative Michael Froman argues for comprehensive trade and investment strategy – read possibly in the future, negotiate reciprocal trade agreements, à la EU-Africa Economic Partnership Agreements (EPAs) but with more binding investment clauses to protect the interests of US businessmen.
Reuters | 28-Apr-2014
The Qatar-based satellite network Al Jazeera served Egypt with a $150 million compensation claim on Monday for what it said was damage to its business inflicted by Cairo’s military rulers, a step likely to worsen Qatari-Egyptian relations.
FT | 28-Apr-2014
Al Jazeera has lodged a $150m claim for compensation against Egypt, turning to an international investor arbitration tribunal in its latest bid to fight a crackdown by the government in Cairo.
Business Day | 5-Feb-2014
A stir greeted last year’s announcement by the South African government that it would not be renegotiating bilateral investment agreements with major trading partners such as the EU. However, it now seems as if a lot of dust has settled around the Promotion and Protection of Investment Bill, which is set to replace the agreements.
IISD | 20-Jan-2014
Libya ordered to pay US$935 million to Kuwaiti company for cancelled investment project; jurisdiction established under Unified Agreement for the Investment of Arab Capital.
Mondaq | 9-Jan-2014
The SADC protocol on investment provides rights to investors, including investor-state dispute settlement provisions, in southern Africa no matter what country they hail from. Thus, it goes way beyond typical bilateral investment treaties (BITs) while protecting foreign companies operating in SADC countries without BIT coverage.

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