Energy Charter Treaty

The Energy Charter Treaty (ECT) is a plurilateral investment agreement between 53 European and Central Asian countries. It was signed in 1994 and entered into force in April 1998.

About 30 countries around the world are at different stages of joining the ECT. Burundi, Eswatini (formerly Swaziland) and Mauritania are first in line, followed by Pakistan and Uganda.

The original objective of the ECT was to overcome the political and economic divisions between Eastern and Western Europe after the demise of the Soviet Union, as well as to strengthen Europe’s energy security. European countries wanted to secure the access to fossil fuel resources of the former Soviet countries by protecting foreign energy investments in these countries.

The ECT provides for an Investor State Dispute Settlement (ISDS) mechanism to resolve disputes between an investor and a member state. To this day, it is the world’s most widely used legal instrument for initiating ISDS arbitrations. It has been invoked by investors in 124 cases.

Critics argue that as with most other investment agreements, it places investors’ economic rights and interests over the social, ecological and economic interests of host states and their societies. The ECT imposes obligations on the host state but not on foreign investors. The ECT has also been condemned by environmental activists for protecting the fossil fuel industry and undermining serious climate action.

Spain has been subject to 45 arbitration disputes under the ECT after it implemented a series of energy reforms affecting the renewables sector, including a reduction in subsidies for producers. While some cases are still pending, Spain has already been ordered to pay over €800 million.

You can find out more about the Energy Charter Treaty on the ECT’s dirty secrets website.

Key cases include:

Vattenfall (Sweden) vs. Germany: In 2007 the Swedish energy corporation was granted a provisional permit to build a coal-fired power plant near the city of Hamburg. In an effort to protect the Elbe river from the waste waters dumped from the plant, environmental restrictions were added before the final approval of its construction. The investor initiated a dispute, arguing it would make the project unviable. The case was ultimately settled in 2011, with the city of Hamburg agreeing to the lowering of environmental standards.

Yukos (Isle of Man) vs. Russia: Yukos was a Russian oil and gas company. It was acquired from the Russian government during the controversial “loans for shares” auctions of the mid 1990s, whereby some of the largest state industrial assets were leased (in effect privatized) through auctions for money lent by commercial banks to the government. The auctions were rigged and lacked competition, and effectively became a form of selling for a very low price. In 2003, the Yukos CEO was arrested on charges of fraud and tax evasion and the following year Yukos’ assets were frozen or confiscated. In 2007 Yukos’ former shareholders filed a claim for over US$100 billion, seeking compensation for their expropriation. The dispute resulted in 2014 in the arbitrators awarding the majority shareholders over US$50 billion in damages. The investors have been trying to enforce the award in several countries since then.

NextEra (Netherland) vs. Spain: The Dutch investor filed for arbitration in May 2014, after Spain changed the regulatory framework applicable to its investment, namely the construction of two solar power plants. NextEra claimed that Spain abolished the long-term premium and tariff system, negatively affecting the profitability of the project. However, Spain alleged that NextEra should have been aware that changes could be made to the regulatory regime. In May 2019, the investor was awarded around €290 million. Spain filed for annulment in October 2019.

Photo: Marc Maes / Twitter

Last update: April 2020

CCSI | 10-Feb-2021
While withdrawing, EU Member States could attempt to negotiate out of the sunset clause but would be subjected to it unless all other ECT Members agree to relieve them from the application of the clause.
TASS | 8-Feb-2021
The Russian side also repeatedly drew attention to the fact that Yukos shareholders have no right to use modern protection mechanisms, since the privatization of the company was accompanied by deception, corruption and tax evasion
RT | 8-Feb-2021
Les ex-actionnaires de Ioukos, ex-groupe placé en liquidation judiciaire en 2006, poursuivent la Russie pour obtenir 50 milliards de dollars d’indemnisation.
Investing | 5-Feb-2021
La eléctrica alemana RWE (DE:RWEG_p) inició este jueves un caso de arbitraje internacional para exigir una compensación al Gobierno neerlandés por los efectos de la prohibición del uso de carbón a partir de 2030 en Países Bajos, donde tiene una central de energía que podrá sufrir 1.400 millones de euros en pérdidas, lo que ha causado polémica en La Haya.
Le Soir | 5-Feb-2021
Le géant allemand de l’énergie RWE réclame à l’Etat néerlandais une compensation à son projet d’interdire la production d’électricité à l’aide de centrales au charbon. L’entreprise estime qu’elle pourrait subir 1,4 milliard d’euros de dommages.
Euractiv | 4-Feb-2021
The European Union and its member states should draw the consequences of the current stalemate in multilateral talks aimed at reforming the Energy Charter Treaty and consider a coordinated withdrawal, Paris has said
CAN Europe | 4-Feb-2021
RWE has filed an arbitration claim against the Netherlands, seeking compensation for the Dutch decision to phase-out electricity production from coal by 2030.
CIAR Global | 28-Jan-2021
El 25 de enero de 2021, el tribunal del arbitraje de las energéticas alemanas Baywa ha emitido su laudo final en el que condena a España al pago de 22 millones de euros por daños y perjuicios en la inversión en renovables de las compañías.
Star Phoenix Group Ltd | 18-Jan-2021
Star Phoenix Group Ltd has formally notified the government of Georgia of the existence of an investment dispute under the Energy Charter Treaty.

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