litiges investisseurs-état | ISDS

Le mécanisme de règlement des différends entre investisseurs et États (RDIE ou ISDS, selon son sigle anglais) désigne une modalité d’arbitrage des conflits émergeant dans le cadre d’accords d’investissement internationaux selon laquelle les entreprises de l’une des parties sont autorisées à poursuivre en justice le gouvernement de l’autre partie. Ceci signifie qu’elles peuvent porter plainte et réclamer des dommages et intérêts. De nombreux traités d’investissement bilatéraux et chapitres sur l’investissement d’ALE incluent des dispositions autorisant ce mécanisme si les bénéfices escomptés par l’investisseur ont été négativement affectés par une mesure prise par le pays hôte, telle que le changement d’une politique publique. Le différend est généralement arbitré non pas par un tribunal public, mais par une cour privée. Ces affaires sont généralement traitées par le Centre international pour le règlement des différends relatifs aux investissements (Banque mondiale), la Chambre de commerce internationale, la Commission des Nations Unies sur le droit commercial ou la Cour internationale de justice.

Le RDIE est un sujet qui suscite à l’heure actuelle un vif intérêt car il cristallise une forte opposition de la part de citoyens préoccupés par les négociations du TTIP entre l’UE et les États-Unis, les discussions sur l’Accord de partenariat transpacifique et l’Accord économique et commercial global entre le Canada et l’UE.

ITN | 23-jan-2009
The United Kingdom has formally declined to release a notice of arbitration delivered by an Indian citizen under the UK-India bilateral investment treaty, explaining that it would likely “prejudice relations between the United Kingdom and an international organisation ; UNCITRAL.”
ITN | 6-jan-2009
A tribunal has determined that it holds jurisdiction to hear a claim brought by Chevron Corporation against Ecuador for alleged violations of the Ecuador-United States bilateral investment treaty (BIT).
ITN | 24-déc-2008
Argentina has refused calls by Siemens to suspend proceedings at the International Centre for the Settlement of Investment Disputes (ICSID) in which a committee is considering Argentina’s request to revise a 2007 award, following the admission by the German firm that it had bribed Argentinean officials.
| 24-déc-2008
When the government of Ecuador failed to make a scheduled interest payment on private bonds this month, it was hardly the first time a country had defaulted in the middle of a financial crisis.
Upside Down World | 22-déc-2008
A Canadian mining company intends to sue El Salvador’s government for several hundred million dollars if it is not granted permission to open a widely unpopular gold and silver mine that scientists warn would have devastating effects on local water supplies.
| 13-déc-2008
A Canadian mining company and its American subsidiary have threatened the government of El Salvador with a lawsuit after it failed to receive regulatory approval to begin digging for gold and silver in an area some 65 km from San Salvador. The proposed mine has drawn intense opposition from civil society and church-based groups, although the mining company maintains that it enjoys broad public support in El Salvador.
IISD | 3-déc-2008
In a 12 November 2008 final award, an ICSID tribunal has dismissed all claims by two Italian investors, L.E.S.I S.p.A. and ASTALI S.p.A, in a dispute with the government of Algeria over a failed contract to construct a hydraulic dam.
Multinational Monitor | 24-nov-2008
British water giant Biwater cannot use an investment treaty to make Tanzania pay millions for an abrogated water privatization contract, an international tribunal ruled in July.
FDI Magazine | 19-nov-2008
Is there a backlash brewing against the international legal system used by states and investors to settle FDI disputes ? For several years, lawyers and academics have been debating whether the current system - consisting of more than 2600 bilateral investment protection treaties - is ensuring the security and protection of investor assets and contracts without unnecessarily handcuffing the sovereignty of governments to regulate business activity within their borders.
| 5-nov-2008
There is a Slovak proverb which says : “When catching a bird, they sing it a sweet song”. Another Slovak proverb says : “Those who want to beat a dog will certainly find a club“. For investors who find themselves in a situation similar to that described by these proverbs, the bilateral investment treaties (“BITs”) very often provide the last available legal option. A BIT is an agreement establishing the terms and conditions for private investment by nationals and companies of one state in the state of the other.

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